File: /usr/src/linux/fs/proc/array.c

1     /*
2      *  linux/fs/proc/array.c
3      *
4      *  Copyright (C) 1992  by Linus Torvalds
5      *  based on ideas by Darren Senn
6      *
7      * Fixes:
8      * Michael. K. Johnson: stat,statm extensions.
9      *                      <johnsonm@stolaf.edu>
10      *
11      * Pauline Middelink :  Made cmdline,envline only break at '\0's, to
12      *                      make sure SET_PROCTITLE works. Also removed
13      *                      bad '!' which forced address recalculation for
14      *                      EVERY character on the current page.
15      *                      <middelin@polyware.iaf.nl>
16      *
17      * Danny ter Haar    :	added cpuinfo
18      *			<dth@cistron.nl>
19      *
20      * Alessandro Rubini :  profile extension.
21      *                      <rubini@ipvvis.unipv.it>
22      *
23      * Jeff Tranter      :  added BogoMips field to cpuinfo
24      *                      <Jeff_Tranter@Mitel.COM>
25      *
26      * Bruno Haible      :  remove 4K limit for the maps file
27      *			<haible@ma2s2.mathematik.uni-karlsruhe.de>
28      *
29      * Yves Arrouye      :  remove removal of trailing spaces in get_array.
30      *			<Yves.Arrouye@marin.fdn.fr>
31      *
32      * Jerome Forissier  :  added per-CPU time information to /proc/stat
33      *                      and /proc/<pid>/cpu extension
34      *                      <forissier@isia.cma.fr>
35      *			- Incorporation and non-SMP safe operation
36      *			of forissier patch in 2.1.78 by
37      *			Hans Marcus <crowbar@concepts.nl>
38      *
39      * aeb@cwi.nl        :  /proc/partitions
40      *
41      *
42      * Alan Cox	     :  security fixes.
43      *			<Alan.Cox@linux.org>
44      *
45      * Al Viro           :  safe handling of mm_struct
46      *
47      * Gerhard Wichert   :  added BIGMEM support
48      * Siemens AG           <Gerhard.Wichert@pdb.siemens.de>
49      *
50      * Al Viro & Jeff Garzik :  moved most of the thing into base.c and
51      *			 :  proc_misc.c. The rest may eventually go into
52      *			 :  base.c too.
53      */
54     
55     #include <linux/config.h>
56     #include <linux/types.h>
57     #include <linux/errno.h>
58     #include <linux/sched.h>
59     #include <linux/kernel.h>
60     #include <linux/kernel_stat.h>
61     #include <linux/tty.h>
62     #include <linux/string.h>
63     #include <linux/mman.h>
64     #include <linux/proc_fs.h>
65     #include <linux/ioport.h>
66     #include <linux/mm.h>
67     #include <linux/pagemap.h>
68     #include <linux/swap.h>
69     #include <linux/slab.h>
70     #include <linux/smp.h>
71     #include <linux/signal.h>
72     #include <linux/highmem.h>
73     
74     #include <asm/uaccess.h>
75     #include <asm/pgtable.h>
76     #include <asm/io.h>
77     #include <asm/processor.h>
78     
79     /* Gcc optimizes away "strlen(x)" for constant x */
80     #define ADDBUF(buffer, string) \
81     do { memcpy(buffer, string, strlen(string)); \
82          buffer += strlen(string); } while (0)
83     
84     static inline char * task_name(struct task_struct *p, char * buf)
85     {
86     	int i;
87     	char * name;
88     
89     	ADDBUF(buf, "Name:\t");
90     	name = p->comm;
91     	i = sizeof(p->comm);
92     	do {
93     		unsigned char c = *name;
94     		name++;
95     		i--;
96     		*buf = c;
97     		if (!c)
98     			break;
99     		if (c == '\\') {
100     			buf[1] = c;
101     			buf += 2;
102     			continue;
103     		}
104     		if (c == '\n') {
105     			buf[0] = '\\';
106     			buf[1] = 'n';
107     			buf += 2;
108     			continue;
109     		}
110     		buf++;
111     	} while (i);
112     	*buf = '\n';
113     	return buf+1;
114     }
115     
116     /*
117      * The task state array is a strange "bitmap" of
118      * reasons to sleep. Thus "running" is zero, and
119      * you can test for combinations of others with
120      * simple bit tests.
121      */
122     static const char *task_state_array[] = {
123     	"R (running)",		/*  0 */
124     	"S (sleeping)",		/*  1 */
125     	"D (disk sleep)",	/*  2 */
126     	"Z (zombie)",		/*  4 */
127     	"T (stopped)",		/*  8 */
128     	"W (paging)"		/* 16 */
129     };
130     
131     static inline const char * get_task_state(struct task_struct *tsk)
132     {
133     	unsigned int state = tsk->state & (TASK_RUNNING |
134     					   TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE |
135     					   TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE |
136     					   TASK_ZOMBIE |
137     					   TASK_STOPPED);
138     	const char **p = &task_state_array[0];
139     
140     	while (state) {
141     		p++;
142     		state >>= 1;
143     	}
144     	return *p;
145     }
146     
147     static inline char * task_state(struct task_struct *p, char *buffer)
148     {
149     	int g;
150     
151     	read_lock(&tasklist_lock);
152     	buffer += sprintf(buffer,
153     		"State:\t%s\n"
154     		"Pid:\t%d\n"
155     		"PPid:\t%d\n"
156     		"TracerPid:\t%d\n"
157     		"Uid:\t%d\t%d\t%d\t%d\n"
158     		"Gid:\t%d\t%d\t%d\t%d\n",
159     		get_task_state(p),
160     		p->pid, p->pid ? p->p_opptr->pid : 0, 0,
161     		p->uid, p->euid, p->suid, p->fsuid,
162     		p->gid, p->egid, p->sgid, p->fsgid);
163     	read_unlock(&tasklist_lock);	
164     	task_lock(p);
165     	buffer += sprintf(buffer,
166     		"FDSize:\t%d\n"
167     		"Groups:\t",
168     		p->files ? p->files->max_fds : 0);
169     	task_unlock(p);
170     
171     	for (g = 0; g < p->ngroups; g++)
172     		buffer += sprintf(buffer, "%d ", p->groups[g]);
173     
174     	buffer += sprintf(buffer, "\n");
175     	return buffer;
176     }
177     
178     static inline char * task_mem(struct mm_struct *mm, char *buffer)
179     {
180     	struct vm_area_struct * vma;
181     	unsigned long data = 0, stack = 0;
182     	unsigned long exec = 0, lib = 0;
183     
184     	down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
185     	for (vma = mm->mmap; vma; vma = vma->vm_next) {
186     		unsigned long len = (vma->vm_end - vma->vm_start) >> 10;
187     		if (!vma->vm_file) {
188     			data += len;
189     			if (vma->vm_flags & VM_GROWSDOWN)
190     				stack += len;
191     			continue;
192     		}
193     		if (vma->vm_flags & VM_WRITE)
194     			continue;
195     		if (vma->vm_flags & VM_EXEC) {
196     			exec += len;
197     			if (vma->vm_flags & VM_EXECUTABLE)
198     				continue;
199     			lib += len;
200     		}
201     	}
202     	buffer += sprintf(buffer,
203     		"VmSize:\t%8lu kB\n"
204     		"VmLck:\t%8lu kB\n"
205     		"VmRSS:\t%8lu kB\n"
206     		"VmData:\t%8lu kB\n"
207     		"VmStk:\t%8lu kB\n"
208     		"VmExe:\t%8lu kB\n"
209     		"VmLib:\t%8lu kB\n",
210     		mm->total_vm << (PAGE_SHIFT-10),
211     		mm->locked_vm << (PAGE_SHIFT-10),
212     		mm->rss << (PAGE_SHIFT-10),
213     		data - stack, stack,
214     		exec - lib, lib);
215     	up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
216     	return buffer;
217     }
218     
219     static void collect_sigign_sigcatch(struct task_struct *p, sigset_t *ign,
220     				    sigset_t *catch)
221     {
222     	struct k_sigaction *k;
223     	int i;
224     
225     	sigemptyset(ign);
226     	sigemptyset(catch);
227     
228     	if (p->sig) {
229     		k = p->sig->action;
230     		for (i = 1; i <= _NSIG; ++i, ++k) {
231     			if (k->sa.sa_handler == SIG_IGN)
232     				sigaddset(ign, i);
233     			else if (k->sa.sa_handler != SIG_DFL)
234     				sigaddset(catch, i);
235     		}
236     	}
237     }
238     
239     static inline char * task_sig(struct task_struct *p, char *buffer)
240     {
241     	sigset_t ign, catch;
242     
243     	buffer += sprintf(buffer, "SigPnd:\t");
244     	buffer = render_sigset_t(&p->pending.signal, buffer);
245     	*buffer++ = '\n';
246     	buffer += sprintf(buffer, "SigBlk:\t");
247     	buffer = render_sigset_t(&p->blocked, buffer);
248     	*buffer++ = '\n';
249     
250     	collect_sigign_sigcatch(p, &ign, &catch);
251     	buffer += sprintf(buffer, "SigIgn:\t");
252     	buffer = render_sigset_t(&ign, buffer);
253     	*buffer++ = '\n';
254     	buffer += sprintf(buffer, "SigCgt:\t"); /* Linux 2.0 uses "SigCgt" */
255     	buffer = render_sigset_t(&catch, buffer);
256     	*buffer++ = '\n';
257     
258     	return buffer;
259     }
260     
261     static inline char *task_cap(struct task_struct *p, char *buffer)
262     {
263         return buffer + sprintf(buffer, "CapInh:\t%016x\n"
264     			    "CapPrm:\t%016x\n"
265     			    "CapEff:\t%016x\n",
266     			    cap_t(p->cap_inheritable),
267     			    cap_t(p->cap_permitted),
268     			    cap_t(p->cap_effective));
269     }
270     
271     
272     int proc_pid_status(struct task_struct *task, char * buffer)
273     {
274     	char * orig = buffer;
275     	struct mm_struct *mm;
276     
277     	buffer = task_name(task, buffer);
278     	buffer = task_state(task, buffer);
279     	task_lock(task);
280     	mm = task->mm;
281     	if(mm)
282     		atomic_inc(&mm->mm_users);
283     	task_unlock(task);
284     	if (mm) {
285     		buffer = task_mem(mm, buffer);
286     		mmput(mm);
287     	}
288     	buffer = task_sig(task, buffer);
289     	buffer = task_cap(task, buffer);
290     #if defined(CONFIG_ARCH_S390)
291     	buffer = task_show_regs(task, buffer);
292     #endif
293     	return buffer - orig;
294     }
295     
296     int proc_pid_stat(struct task_struct *task, char * buffer)
297     {
298     	unsigned long vsize, eip, esp, wchan;
299     	long priority, nice;
300     	int tty_pgrp = -1, tty_nr = 0;
301     	sigset_t sigign, sigcatch;
302     	char state;
303     	int res;
304     	pid_t ppid;
305     	struct mm_struct *mm;
306     
307     	state = *get_task_state(task);
308     	vsize = eip = esp = 0;
309     	task_lock(task);
310     	mm = task->mm;
311     	if(mm)
312     		atomic_inc(&mm->mm_users);
313     	if (task->tty) {
314     		tty_pgrp = task->tty->pgrp;
315     		tty_nr = kdev_t_to_nr(task->tty->device);
316     	}
317     	task_unlock(task);
318     	if (mm) {
319     		struct vm_area_struct *vma;
320     		down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
321     		vma = mm->mmap;
322     		while (vma) {
323     			vsize += vma->vm_end - vma->vm_start;
324     			vma = vma->vm_next;
325     		}
326     		eip = KSTK_EIP(task);
327     		esp = KSTK_ESP(task);
328     		up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
329     	}
330     
331     	wchan = get_wchan(task);
332     
333     	collect_sigign_sigcatch(task, &sigign, &sigcatch);
334     
335     	/* scale priority and nice values from timeslices to -20..20 */
336     	/* to make it look like a "normal" Unix priority/nice value  */
337     	priority = task->counter;
338     	priority = 20 - (priority * 10 + DEF_COUNTER / 2) / DEF_COUNTER;
339     	nice = task->nice;
340     
341     	read_lock(&tasklist_lock);
342     	ppid = task->pid ? task->p_opptr->pid : 0;
343     	read_unlock(&tasklist_lock);
344     	res = sprintf(buffer,"%d (%s) %c %d %d %d %d %d %lu %lu \
345     %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %ld %ld %ld %ld %ld %ld %lu %lu %ld %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu \
346     %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %d %d\n",
347     		task->pid,
348     		task->comm,
349     		state,
350     		ppid,
351     		task->pgrp,
352     		task->session,
353     	        tty_nr,
354     		tty_pgrp,
355     		task->flags,
356     		task->min_flt,
357     		task->cmin_flt,
358     		task->maj_flt,
359     		task->cmaj_flt,
360     		task->times.tms_utime,
361     		task->times.tms_stime,
362     		task->times.tms_cutime,
363     		task->times.tms_cstime,
364     		priority,
365     		nice,
366     		0UL /* removed */,
367     		task->it_real_value,
368     		task->start_time,
369     		vsize,
370     		mm ? mm->rss : 0, /* you might want to shift this left 3 */
371     		task->rlim[RLIMIT_RSS].rlim_cur,
372     		mm ? mm->start_code : 0,
373     		mm ? mm->end_code : 0,
374     		mm ? mm->start_stack : 0,
375     		esp,
376     		eip,
377     		/* The signal information here is obsolete.
378     		 * It must be decimal for Linux 2.0 compatibility.
379     		 * Use /proc/#/status for real-time signals.
380     		 */
381     		task->pending.signal.sig[0] & 0x7fffffffUL,
382     		task->blocked.sig[0] & 0x7fffffffUL,
383     		sigign      .sig[0] & 0x7fffffffUL,
384     		sigcatch    .sig[0] & 0x7fffffffUL,
385     		wchan,
386     		task->nswap,
387     		task->cnswap,
388     		task->exit_signal,
389     		task->processor);
390     	if(mm)
391     		mmput(mm);
392     	return res;
393     }
394     		
395     static inline void statm_pte_range(pmd_t * pmd, unsigned long address, unsigned long size,
396     	int * pages, int * shared, int * dirty, int * total)
397     {
398     	pte_t * pte;
399     	unsigned long end;
400     
401     	if (pmd_none(*pmd))
402     		return;
403     	if (pmd_bad(*pmd)) {
404     		pmd_ERROR(*pmd);
405     		pmd_clear(pmd);
406     		return;
407     	}
408     	pte = pte_offset(pmd, address);
409     	address &= ~PMD_MASK;
410     	end = address + size;
411     	if (end > PMD_SIZE)
412     		end = PMD_SIZE;
413     	do {
414     		pte_t page = *pte;
415     		struct page *ptpage;
416     
417     		address += PAGE_SIZE;
418     		pte++;
419     		if (pte_none(page))
420     			continue;
421     		++*total;
422     		if (!pte_present(page))
423     			continue;
424     		ptpage = pte_page(page);
425     		if ((!VALID_PAGE(ptpage)) || PageReserved(ptpage))
426     			continue;
427     		++*pages;
428     		if (pte_dirty(page))
429     			++*dirty;
430     		if (page_count(pte_page(page)) > 1)
431     			++*shared;
432     	} while (address < end);
433     }
434     
435     static inline void statm_pmd_range(pgd_t * pgd, unsigned long address, unsigned long size,
436     	int * pages, int * shared, int * dirty, int * total)
437     {
438     	pmd_t * pmd;
439     	unsigned long end;
440     
441     	if (pgd_none(*pgd))
442     		return;
443     	if (pgd_bad(*pgd)) {
444     		pgd_ERROR(*pgd);
445     		pgd_clear(pgd);
446     		return;
447     	}
448     	pmd = pmd_offset(pgd, address);
449     	address &= ~PGDIR_MASK;
450     	end = address + size;
451     	if (end > PGDIR_SIZE)
452     		end = PGDIR_SIZE;
453     	do {
454     		statm_pte_range(pmd, address, end - address, pages, shared, dirty, total);
455     		address = (address + PMD_SIZE) & PMD_MASK;
456     		pmd++;
457     	} while (address < end);
458     }
459     
460     static void statm_pgd_range(pgd_t * pgd, unsigned long address, unsigned long end,
461     	int * pages, int * shared, int * dirty, int * total)
462     {
463     	while (address < end) {
464     		statm_pmd_range(pgd, address, end - address, pages, shared, dirty, total);
465     		address = (address + PGDIR_SIZE) & PGDIR_MASK;
466     		pgd++;
467     	}
468     }
469     
470     int proc_pid_statm(struct task_struct *task, char * buffer)
471     {
472     	struct mm_struct *mm;
473     	int size=0, resident=0, share=0, trs=0, lrs=0, drs=0, dt=0;
474     
475     	task_lock(task);
476     	mm = task->mm;
477     	if(mm)
478     		atomic_inc(&mm->mm_users);
479     	task_unlock(task);
480     	if (mm) {
481     		struct vm_area_struct * vma;
482     		down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
483     		vma = mm->mmap;
484     		while (vma) {
485     			pgd_t *pgd = pgd_offset(mm, vma->vm_start);
486     			int pages = 0, shared = 0, dirty = 0, total = 0;
487     
488     			statm_pgd_range(pgd, vma->vm_start, vma->vm_end, &pages, &shared, &dirty, &total);
489     			resident += pages;
490     			share += shared;
491     			dt += dirty;
492     			size += total;
493     			if (vma->vm_flags & VM_EXECUTABLE)
494     				trs += pages;	/* text */
495     			else if (vma->vm_flags & VM_GROWSDOWN)
496     				drs += pages;	/* stack */
497     			else if (vma->vm_end > 0x60000000)
498     				lrs += pages;	/* library */
499     			else
500     				drs += pages;
501     			vma = vma->vm_next;
502     		}
503     		up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
504     		mmput(mm);
505     	}
506     	return sprintf(buffer,"%d %d %d %d %d %d %d\n",
507     		       size, resident, share, trs, lrs, drs, dt);
508     }
509     
510     /*
511      * The way we support synthetic files > 4K
512      * - without storing their contents in some buffer and
513      * - without walking through the entire synthetic file until we reach the
514      *   position of the requested data
515      * is to cleverly encode the current position in the file's f_pos field.
516      * There is no requirement that a read() call which returns `count' bytes
517      * of data increases f_pos by exactly `count'.
518      *
519      * This idea is Linus' one. Bruno implemented it.
520      */
521     
522     /*
523      * For the /proc/<pid>/maps file, we use fixed length records, each containing
524      * a single line.
525      *
526      * f_pos = (number of the vma in the task->mm->mmap list) * PAGE_SIZE
527      *         + (index into the line)
528      */
529     /* for systems with sizeof(void*) == 4: */
530     #define MAPS_LINE_FORMAT4	  "%08lx-%08lx %s %08lx %s %lu"
531     #define MAPS_LINE_MAX4	49 /* sum of 8  1  8  1 4 1 8 1 5 1 10 1 */
532     
533     /* for systems with sizeof(void*) == 8: */
534     #define MAPS_LINE_FORMAT8	  "%016lx-%016lx %s %016lx %s %lu"
535     #define MAPS_LINE_MAX8	73 /* sum of 16  1  16  1 4 1 16 1 5 1 10 1 */
536     
537     #define MAPS_LINE_FORMAT	(sizeof(void*) == 4 ? MAPS_LINE_FORMAT4 : MAPS_LINE_FORMAT8)
538     #define MAPS_LINE_MAX	(sizeof(void*) == 4 ?  MAPS_LINE_MAX4 :  MAPS_LINE_MAX8)
539     
540     static int proc_pid_maps_get_line (char *buf, struct vm_area_struct *map)
541     {
542     	/* produce the next line */
543     	char *line;
544     	char str[5];
545     	int flags;
546     	kdev_t dev;
547     	unsigned long ino;
548     	int len;
549     
550     	flags = map->vm_flags;
551     
552     	str[0] = flags & VM_READ ? 'r' : '-';
553     	str[1] = flags & VM_WRITE ? 'w' : '-';
554     	str[2] = flags & VM_EXEC ? 'x' : '-';
555     	str[3] = flags & VM_MAYSHARE ? 's' : 'p';
556     	str[4] = 0;
557     
558     	dev = 0;
559     	ino = 0;
560     	if (map->vm_file != NULL) {
561     		dev = map->vm_file->f_dentry->d_inode->i_dev;
562     		ino = map->vm_file->f_dentry->d_inode->i_ino;
563     		line = d_path(map->vm_file->f_dentry,
564     			      map->vm_file->f_vfsmnt,
565     			      buf, PAGE_SIZE);
566     		buf[PAGE_SIZE-1] = '\n';
567     		line -= MAPS_LINE_MAX;
568     		if(line < buf)
569     			line = buf;
570     	} else
571     		line = buf;
572     
573     	len = sprintf(line,
574     		      MAPS_LINE_FORMAT,
575     		      map->vm_start, map->vm_end, str, map->vm_pgoff << PAGE_SHIFT,
576     		      kdevname(dev), ino);
577     
578     	if(map->vm_file) {
579     		int i;
580     		for(i = len; i < MAPS_LINE_MAX; i++)
581     			line[i] = ' ';
582     		len = buf + PAGE_SIZE - line;
583     		memmove(buf, line, len);
584     	} else
585     		line[len++] = '\n';
586     	return len;
587     }
588     
589     ssize_t proc_pid_read_maps (struct task_struct *task, struct file * file, char * buf,
590     			  size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
591     {
592     	struct mm_struct *mm;
593     	struct vm_area_struct * map;
594     	char *tmp, *kbuf;
595     	long retval;
596     	int off, lineno, loff;
597     
598     	/* reject calls with out of range parameters immediately */
599     	retval = 0;
600     	if (*ppos > LONG_MAX)
601     		goto out;
602     	if (count == 0)
603     		goto out;
604     	off = (long)*ppos;
605     	/*
606     	 * We might sleep getting the page, so get it first.
607     	 */
608     	retval = -ENOMEM;
609     	kbuf = (char*)__get_free_page(GFP_KERNEL);
610     	if (!kbuf)
611     		goto out;
612     
613     	tmp = (char*)__get_free_page(GFP_KERNEL);
614     	if (!tmp)
615     		goto out_free1;
616     
617     	task_lock(task);
618     	mm = task->mm;
619     	if (mm)
620     		atomic_inc(&mm->mm_users);
621     	task_unlock(task);
622     	retval = 0;
623     	if (!mm)
624     		goto out_free2;
625     
626     	down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
627     	map = mm->mmap;
628     	lineno = 0;
629     	loff = 0;
630     	if (count > PAGE_SIZE)
631     		count = PAGE_SIZE;
632     	while (map) {
633     		int len;
634     		if (off > PAGE_SIZE) {
635     			off -= PAGE_SIZE;
636     			goto next;
637     		}
638     		len = proc_pid_maps_get_line(tmp, map);
639     		len -= off;
640     		if (len > 0) {
641     			if (retval+len > count) {
642     				/* only partial line transfer possible */
643     				len = count - retval;
644     				/* save the offset where the next read
645     				 * must start */
646     				loff = len+off;
647     			}
648     			memcpy(kbuf+retval, tmp+off, len);
649     			retval += len;
650     		}
651     		off = 0;
652     next:
653     		if (!loff)
654     			lineno++;
655     		if (retval >= count)
656     			break;
657     		if (loff) BUG();
658     		map = map->vm_next;
659     	}
660     	up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
661     	mmput(mm);
662     
663     	if (retval > count) BUG();
664     	if (copy_to_user(buf, kbuf, retval))
665     		retval = -EFAULT;
666     	else
667     		*ppos = (lineno << PAGE_SHIFT) + loff;
668     
669     out_free2:
670     	free_page((unsigned long)tmp);
671     out_free1:
672     	free_page((unsigned long)kbuf);
673     out:
674     	return retval;
675     }
676     
677     #ifdef CONFIG_SMP
678     int proc_pid_cpu(struct task_struct *task, char * buffer)
679     {
680     	int i, len;
681     
682     	len = sprintf(buffer,
683     		"cpu  %lu %lu\n",
684     		task->times.tms_utime,
685     		task->times.tms_stime);
686     		
687     	for (i = 0 ; i < smp_num_cpus; i++)
688     		len += sprintf(buffer + len, "cpu%d %lu %lu\n",
689     			i,
690     			task->per_cpu_utime[cpu_logical_map(i)],
691     			task->per_cpu_stime[cpu_logical_map(i)]);
692     
693     	return len;
694     }
695     #endif
696